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AI terms


There are many different terms used to define different aspects of Artificial Intelligence. Many new terms are nothing new just renamed technologies. A sales gimmick to make you think this is a new discovery. Links to the definitions are provided so that you can research each term more thoroughly yourself. Gathered from the What Is site.

AI (Artificial Intelligence)
AI (Artificial Intelligence) AI (pronounced AYE-EYE) or artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction.
Bayesian logic
Named for Thomas Bayes, an English clergyman and mathematician,Bayesian logic is a branch of logic applied to decision making and inferential statistics that deals with probability inference: using the knowledge of prior events to predict future events. Bayes first proposed his theorem in his 1763 work (published two years after his death in 1761), An Essay Towards Solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances . Bayes' theorem provided, for the first time, a mathematical method that could be used to calculate, given occurrences in prior trials, the likelihood of a target occurrence in future trials. According to Bayesian logic, the only way to quantify a situation with an uncertain outcome is through determining its probability.
See also Bayesian probability and Bayesian filter

Big data
big data Big data is an evolving term that describes any voluminous amount of structured, semi-structured and unstructured data that has the potential to be mined for information.
Boolean
The term Boolean often encountered when doing searches on the Web (and sometimes spelled "boolean"), refers to a system of logical thought developed by the English mathematician and computer pioneer, George Boole (1815-64). In Boolean searching, an "and" operator between two words or other values (for example, "pear AND apple") means one is searching for documents containing both of the words or values, not just one of them. An "or" operator between two words or other values (for example, "pear OR apple") means one is searching for documents containing either of the words.
Computational linguistics
Computational linguisticsComputational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective.
Cognitive computing
Cognitive computing is the simulation of human thought processes in a computerized model. Cognitive computing involves self-learning systems that use data mining, pattern recognition and natural language processing to mimic the way the human brain works. The goal of cognitive computing is to create automated IT systems that are capable of solving problems without requiring human assistance.
Data mining
Data mining is sorting through data to identify patterns and establish relationships.
Deep analytics
Deep analytics Deep analytics is the application of sophisticated data processing techniques to yield information from large and typically multi-source data sets that may contain not only structured data but also unstructured and semi-structured data.
Deep learning
Deep learning (deep structured learning, or hierarchical learning, or sometimes DL, or more correctly deep machine learning) is a branch of machine learning based on a set of algorithms that attempt to model high-level abstractions in data by using multiple processing layers with complex structures, or otherwise composed of multiple non-linear transformations
Decision support system (DSS)
Decision support system (DSS) A decision support system (DSS) is a computer program application that analyzes business data and presents it so that users can make business decisions more easily. It is an "informational application" (to distinguish it from an "operational application" that collects the data in the course of normal business operation).
Engine
In computer programming, an engine is a program that performs a core or essential function for other programs. An engine can be a central or focal program in an operating system , subsystem, or application program that coordinates the overall operation of other programs. It is also used to describe a special-purpose program containing an algorithm that can sometimes be changed. The best known usage is the term search engine which uses an algorithm to search an index of topics given a search argument. A search engine is designed so that its approach to searching the index can be changed to reflect new rules for finding and prioritizing matches in the index. In artificial intelligence , the program that uses rules of logic to derive output from a knowledge base is called an inference engine .
Enterprise search
Enterprise search Enterprise search is the organized retrieval of structured and unstructured data within an organization. Properly implemented, enterprise search creates an easily navigated interface for entering, categorizing and retrieving data securely, in compliance with security and data retention regulations.
Expert system
Expert system is a somewhat archaic term that describes a computer program that simulates the judgment and behavior of a human or an organization that has expert knowledge and experience in a particular field.
Fuzzy logic
Fuzzy logic is an approach to computing based on "degrees of truth" rather than the usual "true or false" (1 or 0) Boolean logic on which the modern computer is based.
Internet of Things (IoT)
The Internet of Things (IoT) has been defined in Recommendation ITU-T Y.2060 (06/2012) as a global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and communication technologies.
IT automation
IT automation is the linking of disparate systems and software in such a way that they become self-acting or self-regulating.
Knowledge base
A knowledge base is a machine-readable resource for the dissemination of information, generally online or with the capacity to be put online. An integral component of knowledge management systems, a knowledge base is used to optimize information collection, organization, and retrieval for an organization, or for the general public.
Machine learning
Machine learning Machine learning is a type of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides computers with the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can teach themselves to grow and change when exposed to new data. The process of machine learning is similar to that of data mining. Both systems search through data to look for patterns. However, instead of extracting data for human comprehension -- as is the case in data mining applications -- machine learning uses that data to improve the program's own understanding. Machine learning programs detect patterns in data and adjust program actions accordingly.
Named entity
Named entity In data mining, a named entity is a phrase that clearly identifies one item from a set of other items that have similar attributes. Examples of named entities are first and last names, geographic locations, ages, addresses, phone numbers, companies and addresses. Named entities are often mined for marketing initiatives.
Natural language processing (NLP)
Natural language processing (NLP) is the ability of a computer program to understand human speech as it is spoken. NLP is a component of artificial intelligenc
Neural network
neural network In information technology, a neural network is a system of programs and data structures that approximates the operation of the human brain. A neural network usually involves a large number of processors operating in parallel, each with its own small sphere of knowledge and access to data in its local memory. Typically, a neural network is initially "trained" or fed large amounts of data and rules about data relationships (for example, "A grandfather is older than a person's father"). A program can then tell the network how to behave in response to an external stimulus (for example, to input from a computer user who is interacting with the network) or can initiate activity on its own (within the limits of its access to the external world).
Parse
Parse To parse is to analyze something in an orderly way. In linguistics, to parse is to divide words and phrases into different parts in order to understand relationships and meaning. For example, English students are sometimes asked to parse a sentence by dividing it into subject and predicate, and then into dependent phrases, modifiers, and so forth.
Predictive analytics
Predictive analytics is the branch of data mining concerned with the prediction of future probabilities and trends. The central element of predictive analytics is the predictor, a variable that can be measured for an individual or other entity to predict future behavior.
Machine to machine (M2M)
Machine to machine (M2M) is a broad label that can be used to describe any technology that enables networked devices to exchange information and perform actions without the manual assistance of humans. M2M communication is often used for remote monitoring. In product restocking, for example, a vending machine can message the distributor when a particular item is running low. M2M communication is an important aspect of warehouse management, remote control, robotics, traffic control, logistic services, supply chain management, fleet management and telemedicine. It forms the basis for a concept known as the Internet of Things (IoT).
Machine vision
Machine vision is the ability of a computer to "see." A machine-vision system employs one or more video cameras, analog-to-digital conversion ( ADC ), and digital signal processing ( DSP ). The resulting data goes to a computer or robot controller. Machine vision is similar in complexity to voice recognition .
Speech recognition
Speech recognition is the ability of a machine or program to identify words and phrases in spoken language and convert them to a machine-readable format. Rudimentary speech recognition software has a limited vocabulary of words and phrases and may only identify these if they are spoken very clearly. More sophisticated software has the ability to accept natural speech. Speech recognition applications include call routing, speech-to-text, voice dialing and voice search.
Web mining
Web mining In customer relationship management (CRM), Web mining is the integration of information gathered by traditional data mining methodologies and techniques with information gathered over the World Wide Web. (Mining means extracting something useful or valuable from a baser substance, such as mining gold from the earth.) Web mining is used to understand customer behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of a particular Web site, and help quantify the success of a marketing campaign.

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